Modern usage has been influenced by considerations of technological convenience including the economy of typewriter ribbons and films, and similar computer character "disallowance" which tend to ignore past standards.
Apostrophes in essays in business names[ edit ] Sign to Green Craigs housing development See also: Avoid possessive pronouns mine, yours, hers, ours, theirs in such constructions.
Others, however, are perfectly normal in formal writing: Such ambiguous sentences should just be rewritten. Except for such conventional phrases, however, you should always write out years in full when you are writing formally: Some business names may inadvertently spell a different name if the name with an s at the end is also a name, such as Parson.
Until the 18th century, the apostrophe was extensively used to indicate subjective, "normal" plural, and its use for indicating plural "possessive" use was not standard before the middle of the 19th century. Use an apostrophe with contractions.
Modern French orthography has restored the spelling une heure. There are various approaches to plurals for abbreviations, single letters, and numerals. To show possession, add an apostrophe. Many respected authorities recommend that practically all singular nouns, including those ending with a sibilant sound, have possessive forms with an extra s after the apostrophe so that the spelling reflects the underlying pronunciation.
This ambiguity does not occur when tone marks are used: The following examples are all in widespread use: These are not really contractions because there is no alternative way of writing them.
It is very bad style to spatter e. Hastings, many people would wrongly write Mr. These nouns become plural by changing their spelling, sometimes becoming quite different words. The same goes even when you want to pluralize a proper name: The spelling of these ends with -s, -se, -z, -ze, -ce, -x, or -xe.
A widely accepted practice is to follow whichever spoken form is judged better: Non-standard English use[ edit ] If you have a name that ends in "s," or if you will observe home-made signs selling tomatoes or chili-and-beans, you will quickly note what can be done with a possessive apostrophe in reckless hands.
He learned his ABCs. However, if one of the joint owners is written as a pronoun, use the possessive form for both. We visited the Sanchezes. Both of the following may be encountered: This case was called the genitive until the 18th century and like the genitive case in other languages does not always involve possession.
A problem therefore arises with the possessive plurals of these compounds. Abbreviations are things like Mr for Mister, lb.
Readers would see as and us, and feel lost. Many style guides, while allowing that these constructions are possible, advise rephrasing: This punctuation is preferred in major style guides. The basic rule is simple enough: She consulted with three M.
Third, a year is occasionally written in an abbreviated form with an apostrophe:The apostrophe (' or They are sometimes humorously called greengrocers apostrophe's, rogue apostrophes, or idiot's apostrophes (a literal translation of the German word Deppenapostroph, which criticises the misapplication of apostrophes in Denglisch).
The practice. Apostrophes can be used to create contractions (shortened forms of words or phrases). Apostrophes also indicate possession.
In addition to being a punctuation mark, an apostrophe is a figure of speech in which some absent or nonexistent person or thing is addressed as if present and capable of understanding.
Also known as a turne tale, aversio, and aversion, apostrophes are more often found in poetry than in prose. The apostrophe is a punctuation mark used to mark omissions and possessives of nouns and pronouns.
Remembering Jane Straus Don't add apostrophes to noun-derived adjectives ending in s. Close analysis is the best guide. Incorrect: We. Free punctuation guide to apostrophes from Essay UK, the UK essays company that provides essay writing services for students.
The use of the apostrophe: avoid using contractions within your essay A contraction, in the context being discussed, refers to the use of an apostrophe in place of other characters. For example, it’s instead of it is, can’t instead of cannot, isn’t instead of is not.Download