The great procession marching toward the east end of the Parthenon shows the post-battle thanksgiving sacrifice of cattle and sheep, honey and water, followed by the triumphant army of Erechtheus returning from their victory. As with the stylobate, the columns were made thicker in the middle to compensate for the visual effect of foreshortening.
The architrave of the cella, or the facing just above the capitals of its columns, was carved to depict the Panathenaic festival, which was held yearly in celebration of Athena. The architects Iktinos and Callicrates are said to have called the building Hekatompedos "the hundred footer" in their lost treatise on Athenian architecture,  and, in the 4th century and later, the building was referred to as the Hekatompedos or the Hekatompedon as well as the Parthenon; the 1st-century-AD writer Plutarch referred to the building as the Hekatompedos Parthenon.
Pediments of the Parthenon The traveller Pausaniaswhen he visited the Acropolis at the end of the 2nd century AD, only mentioned briefly the sculptures of the pediments gable ends of the temple, reserving the majority of his description for the gold and ivory statue of the goddess inside.
The metopes of the west end show the Amazonomachy the mythical battle of the Athenians against the Amazons. Even in antiquity, its architectural refinements were legendary, especially the subtle correspondence between the curvature of the stylobate, the taper of the naos walls and the entasis of the columns.
This included not only the flat tiles of the roof itself, but also an extensive gutter around the perimeter. A flute is the concave shaft carved into the column form.
Metopes 13—21 are missing, but drawings from attributed to Jaques Carrey indicate a series of humans; these have been variously interpreted as scenes from the Lapith wedding, scenes from the early history of Athens and various myths. This building replaced a hekatompedon meaning "hundred-footer" and would have stood beside the archaic temple dedicated to Athena Polias "of the city".
The most important buildings visible on the Acropolis today — the Parthenon, the Propylaiathe Erechtheion and the temple of Athena Nike — were erected during this period.
The revealed lower surface was decorated and painted. It stands on a platform or stylobate of three steps. The Parthenon was constructed with a passion for symmetry, especially for the classic ratio of 4 to 9.
Older Parthenon The first endeavour to build a sanctuary for Athena Parthenos on the site of the present Parthenon was begun shortly after the Battle of Marathon c.
Each end features a second row of six columns between the outer face and the inner structure. The metopes of the south side show the Thessalian Centauromachy battle of the Lapiths aided by Theseus against the half-man, half-horse Centaurs.
Above the architrave of the entablature is a frieze of carved pictorial panels metopesseparated by formal architectural triglyphstypical of the Doric order. One interpretation is that it depicts an idealized version of the Panathenaic procession from the Dipylon Gate in the Kerameikos to the Acropolis.
Roof The roof itself was made of marble tiles quarried from Mount Pentelicon. The decorative stonework was originally highly coloured. The pediments had once been painted, and served as a backdrop to free-standing sculptures. Eight of them line each end, with 17 columns from front to back.
East pediment[ edit ] Part of the east pediment still found on the Parthenon although part of it, like Dionysos, is a copy The figures on the corners of the pediment depict the passage of time over the course of a full day.
A perfectly straight platform of such length would seem to dip in the middle, so it was built to ascend instead, by just over four inches on the longer side, creating the impression that it was perfectly level.
The temple, wrote John Julius Cooper"enjoys the reputation of being the most perfect Doric temple ever built. It is believed that the corners of the pediment are filled by Athenian water deities, such as Kephisos river, Ilissos river and nymph Callirhoe.Its aesthetic appeal emanates from the refinement of many established norms of Greek architecture, and from the quality of its sculptural decoration.
The Parthenon epitomizes all the ideals of Greek thought during the apogee of the Classical era through artistic means. The Parthenon is regarded as the finest example of Greek architecture. The temple, wrote John Julius Cooper, "enjoys the reputation of being the most perfect Doric temple ever built.
Even in antiquity, its architectural refinements were legendary. Architectural Features of the Parthenon. the Parthenon best exemplifies the various components of Greek architecture. Stylobate. triangles with ratios of 3 on the vertical, 4 on the horizontal, and 5 on the diagonal.
In the final analysis, however, the appearance of symmetry was more important than the reality, resulting in variations. When work began on the Parthenon in BC, the Athenian Empire was at the height of its power. Work on the temple continued until ; the Parthenon, then, represents the tangible and visible efflorescence of Athenian imperial power, unencumbered by the depradations of the Peloponnesian War.
The Parthenon is widely considered to be the apotheosis of classical architecture, regarded as an enduring symbol of Greek culture, Athenian democracy and Western civilization as a whole.
It is constructed in the traditional Doric order of temple design, representing logic, morality, restraint and control. The Parthenon would become the largest Doric Greek temple, although it was innovative in that it mixed the two architectural styles of Doric and the newer Ionic.Download