Another such device was a crane, the mechanewhich served to hoist a god or goddess on stage when they were supposed to arrive flying. All actors were male and wore masks. The influence of Seneca was particularly strong in its humanist tragedy.
A Greek chorus danced as well as sang, though no one knows exactly what sorts of steps the chorus performed as it sang.
This event was frequently a brutal murder of some sort, an act of violence which could not be effectively portrayed visually, but an action of which the other characters must see the effects in order for it to have meaning and emotional resonance. The earliest tragedies to employ purely classical themes are the Achilles written before by Antonio Loschi of Vicenza c.
In the s, the European university setting and especially, from on, the Jesuit colleges became host to a Neo-Latin theatre in Latin written by scholars. His plays, with their ghosts, lyrical passages and rhetorical oratory, brought a concentration on rhetoric and language over dramatic action to many humanist tragedies.
Roman fresco in Pompeii. Both were completed by early and are based on classical Greek models, Rosmunda on the Hecuba of Euripidesand Oreste on the Iphigenia in Tauris of the same author; like Sophonisba, they are in Italian and in blank unrhymed hendecasyllables. Senecan tragedies explore ideas of revengethe occult, the supernatural, suicide, blood and gore.
Performances were apparently open to all citizens, including women, but evidence is scant. Though the gods rarely appear in these plays, ghosts and witches abound.
They dwell on detailed accounts of horrible deeds and contain long reflective soliloquies. Although these three Italian plays are often cited, separately or together, as being the first regular tragedies in modern times, as well as the earliest substantial works to be written in blank hendecasyllables, they were apparently preceded by two other works in the vernacular: Probably meant to be recited at elite gatherings, they differ from the Greek versions in their long declamatory, narrative accounts of action, their obtrusive moralising, and their bombastic rhetoric.
Renaissance[ edit ] Influence of Greek and Roman[ edit ] Classical Greek drama was largely forgotten in Western Europe from the Middle Ages to the beginning of the 16th century. The presentations took the form of a contest between three playwrights, who presented their works on three successive days.
The Greek tragic authors Sophocles and Euripides would become increasingly important as models by the middle of the 17th century. The most important sources for French tragic theatre in the Renaissance were the example of Seneca and the precepts of Horace and Aristotle and contemporary commentaries by Julius Caesar Scaliger and Lodovico Castelvetroalthough plots were taken from classical authors such as PlutarchSuetoniusetc.Tragedy (from the Greek: τραγῳδία, tragōidia) is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences.
While many cultures have developed forms that provoke this paradoxical response, the term tragedy often refers to a specific tradition of drama that has played a unique and important role historically in the self-definition of.Download