A descriptive review of catapults and crossbow

The need for flexibility Thus considered, the principles of tactics look simple enough. The point was reached when, during World War I, commanders from division level up seldom visited the front; nor would the six-foot-deep trenches, screened by concertina in front, have allowed them to take a good look at the enemy even if they had visited it.

Its maximum height is 93 ft 6 in Elsewhere, there was a lively debate concerning the best way to break through defensive belts. However such devices probably predated Archimedes and were possibly used in the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. Ultimately the library overshadowed the Musaeum in importance and interest becoming perhaps the oldest university in the world.

Once the enemy has been thrown into disorder and some of his personnel killed or wounded, cover is discarded, and short-range weapons such as club, spear, and dagger are employed for delivering the coup de grace.

Though the precise arrangements varied from one army to the next, inside each line the units were organized by platoon, company, and battalion. During World War I, it became routine for battles to spread over dozens of square miles and last weeks or even months. Aristotle was also a tutor to the young Alexander the Great.

The weapons employed on such occasions usually consist of the club or its more advanced form, the macespear, and javelin, sometimes joined by the bow and special blunted arrows.

From around B. Aristotle believed that knowledge should be gained by pure rational thought and had no time for mathematics which he regarded only as a calculating device. Another was the chariot, which was already obsolescent and, except in backward Britain, disappeared almost completely after its defeat at the Battle of Gaugamela in bc.

The attacking troops were organized in small, self-contained storming parties. Being obliged to keep their possessions few and light, nomads typically were unable to compete with sedentary civilizations in general material development, including not least metallurgy.

Such tactics, which are closely connected to those used in hunting and may indeed have originated in the latter, are well known to tribal societies all over the world.

Consisting of formal trials of strength between the main forces of both sides, often enough battles resulted from a kind of tacit mutual consent to commence hostilities.

As Sumerian reliefs, Egyptian wooden models, and Greek narratives show, the typical weapons employed by the phalanx were consistently short-range, hand-held instruments such as sword, spear, and pike, used in accordance to whether individual duels or mass action was considered more important.

Thus he showed that the surface area A of a sphere with radius r is given by: Hence attacks could succeed, and in some circumstances even cavalry remained effective.


In addition, the phalanx began to be combined with other kinds of troops, such as light infantry javelin men and slingers and cavalry. This was followed by Christian riots the same year and A. Gun-barrels and bullets were the first cast iron products to be manufactured but it was not until when Abraham Darby introduced new production methods that low cost, volume production was achieved.

History of Technology

The new crown when delivered weighed the same as the ingot supplied but the King wanted Archimedes to determine whether the goldsmith had adulterated the gold by substituting a portion of silver. Land warfare is fought neither in a vacuum nor on a uniformly checkered board.

The ability of officers to keep their units apart, their men in hand, and their objectives in view declined, if it did not actually disappear. Archimedes calculated its value to be 3.

A pattern of rows of tiny dots was made in a sheet of paper which was pressed down on top of a blank sheet and ink was forced through the holes. If the naval siege defences had been so successful, why would they not have been subsequently adopted as standard practice and why did they not appear in historical accounts of the battles?

Their essence consisted of packing troops together in dense, massive blocks, to some extent sacrificing flexibility, mobility, and the possibility of concealment in order to achieve mutual protection and maximize striking power.

The development of this finer paper suitable for writing is attributed to Cai Lun, a eunuch in the Imperial court during the Han dynasty B. To employ guile, it is necessary to disperse, hide, and feint.Heroes and Villains - A little light reading.

Here you will find a brief history of technology. Initially inspired by the development of batteries, it covers technology in general and includes some interesting little known, or long forgotten, facts as well as a few myths about the development of technology, the science behind it, the context in which it occurred and the deeds of the many.

We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. Tactics: Tactics, in warfare, the art and science of fighting battles on land, on sea, and in the air. It is concerned with the approach to combat; the disposition of troops and other personalities; the use made of various arms, ships, or aircraft; and the execution of movements for attack or defense.

This. Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin The Byzantine navy, like the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire itself, was a continuation of the Roman Empire and its institutions.

After the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, in the absence of any external threat in the Mediterranean, the Roman navy performed mostly policing and escort duties.

Byzantine navy

Massive sea battles, like those fought in the Punic Wars, no longer occurred, and the Roman fleets were.

A descriptive review of catapults and crossbow
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